iii. Zion City, Illinois, was established in 1902 as a Christian utopia by Scottish clergyman John Alexander Dowie, who planned the entire city before building commenced, basing it on the Union Jack. In 1987, the Illinois chapter of American Atheists filed suit against the city as its seal, featuring a cross, a dove and the phrase “God Reigns”, was unconstitutional.
ii. Almost 160 years after Frederick Marley was born in Rye, his great-grandson, Robert Nesta Marley, would sing of a vampiric “Babylon system”. Babylon in Rastafarian thought is the embodiment of corrupt, oppressive western society, the antidote to which is the utopian ideal of Zion (where heaven is a place on earth).