iii. Howard’s garden cities were circular in form with six radial boulevards, 37m wide, and a population of 32,000. Each would produce its own food and be self-sustaining. This solar system of “slumless, smokeless cities” would orbit a central city (pop. 58,000), connected to it, and each other, by road, rail and canal, with the land in between given over to farms and forests, as well as homes for convalescents, waifs, inebriates and the insane (the other spaces).
But these heterotopias of crisis are disappearing today and are being replaced, I believe, by what we might call heterotopias of deviation: those in which individuals whose behaviour is deviant in relation to the required mean of the norm are placed. Cases of this are rest homes and psychiatric hospitals, and of course prisons…
—Michel Foucault, Other Spaces, 1967